William M Grove

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Empirical Interests

I also perform assessment research related to the (MMPI and MMPI-2 and certain other widely-used instruments,. Another interest is statistical (actuarial, mechanical) versus clinical (judgment-based) prediction methods, and the development of sound statistical procedures for accurately predicting important behaviors, e.g., criminal offender recidivism.

Methodological Interests

These interests concern latent categorical versus dimensional psychopathology constructs. For example, investigators debate whether DSM-IV disorders represent distinct disease entities (latent categories). One reason this debate matters is that if a disorder is categorical, it may have a single, categorical cause strongly influencing development of the disorder. This kind of study could greatly facilitate etiological research.

Taxometric methods, originally developed by Paul E. Meehl include procedures for analyzing multivariate data to determine whether there is a taxon and its complement class. These procedures provide risky tests of categorical theories. I develop new procedures to supplement existing ones. I also study the statistical properties of such procedures, by mathematical and simulation studies.

Finally, I study the relationship between dimensional and categorical psychological measures (e.g., test scores versus DSM-IV diagnoses) and latent categories, in several ways. First, I am interested in ways of classifying individuals into the taxon versus the complement class. Second, I am interested in relating inferred taxon membership (i.e., diagnosis), measures that allow one to infer taxon membership, and other variables that one may wish to predict (e.g., prognosis, future behavior).

I also have an interest in forensic psychology. I am interested in forensic assessment and prediction (e.g., sex offender recidivism), and in improving the scientific quality of expert witness testimony in courtroom proceedings.

Educational Background & Specialties

Educational Background

  • Ph.D.: Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 1983.
  • M.A.: Counselor Education, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 1977.
  • B.A.: Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 1974.

Curriculum Vitae


  • expert witness issues in forensic psychology
  • taxometric methods
  • validity of projective tests such as Rorschach
  • classification and behavior genetics of major mental disorders
  • diagnosis, prediction, clinical judgment via psychological assessment
  • R programming and data analysis
Courses Taught
  • Psy 1001 - Psy 1001 Introduction to Psychology (gives the Abnormal Psychology and Clinical lectures)
  • Psy 3604 - Introduction to Abnormal Psychology
  • Psy 3617 - Introduction to Clinical Psychology
  • Psy 4993 - Directed Study: Special Areas of Psychology and Related Sciences: Diagnostic and Classification Research
  • Psy 8004 - Philosophical Psychology
  • Psy 8542 - Professional Ethics
  • Psy 8611 - Professional Assessment I (Psychometrics, Clinical Judgment)
  • Psy 8612 - Professional Assessment II (Objective Personality Assessment)
  • Psy 8622 - Treatment I: Clinical Research and Practice
  • Psy 8993-Sec6 - MCTFR Seminar (guest lecture)
  • Psy 8993-Sec12 - Taxometrics Seminar
  • Psy 8993-Sec99 - Seminar on Freudian Theory
  • Psy 8993-Sec28 - Forensic Psychology
Research & Professional Activities

Professional Activities

  • Editorial Board: "Assessment"
  • Associate Editor: "Personality Assessment"


  • Monte Carlo Studies of Taxometric Methods: Simulation studies of ability of taxometric methods and mixture models to differentiate taxonic from nontaxonic situations in data sets, June 2003
  • The K Scale Revisited: Detection of defensive responding on MMPI and MMPI-2, January 2004
  • Minnesota Twin Family Study: Longitudinal behavior genetic study of male and female twin cohorts, 1989


  • Volunteer Supervisor, Walk-In Counseling Center: Supervise team of volunteer counselors at free, walk-in counseling center, 1990
  • Grove, William Merrill, R.C. Barden (1999). Protecting the integrity of the legal system: The admissibility of testimony from mental health experts under Daubert/Kumho analyses. Psychology, Public Policy, and the Law, 5, 224-242.
  • Grove, William Merrill, Calkins, M.E., Curtis, C.E., Grove, W.M., & Iacono, W.G. (in press). The multiple dimensions of schizotypy in the first degree biological relatives of schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin,
  • Grove, William Merrill (in press). The MAXSLOPE taxometric procedure: Mathematical derivation, parameter estimation, consistency tests. Psychological Reports,
  • Grove, William Merrill, Barden, R.C., Garb, H.N., & Lilienfeld, S.J. (2002). Failure of Rorschach-Comprehensive System-based testimony to be admissible under the Daubert-Joiner-Kumho standard. Psychology, Public Policy, and the Law, 8, 216–234.
  • Grove, W.M., Andreasen, N.C., McDonald-Scott, P., Keller, M., & Shapiro, R.W. (1981). Reliability studies of psychiatric diagnosis: Theory and practice. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 408–416.
  • Grove, William Merrill (1982). Psychometric detection of schizotypy. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 27–38.
  • Grove, W.M., Andreasen, N.C., Winokur, G., Clayton, P.J., Endicott, J., & Coryell, W.H. (1987). Primary and secondary affective disorders: Unipolar patients compared on familial aggregation. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 28, 113–126.
  • Grove, W.M., Andreasen, N.C., Young, M.A., Keller, M.B., Endicott, J., Lavori, P.W., Hirschfeld, R.M.A., & Reich, T. (1987). Isolation and characterization of a nuclear depressive syndrome. Psychological Medicine, 17, 471–484.
  • Grove, W.M., Eckert, E.D., Heston, L., Bouchard, T.J., Segal, N., & Lykken, D.T. (1990). Heritability of substance abuse and antisocial behavior: A study of monozygotic twins reared apart. Biological Psychiatry, 27, 1293–1304.
  • Grove, W.M., Lebow, B.S., Clementz, B.A., Cerri, A., Medus, C., & Iacono, W.G. (1991). Familial prevalence and co-aggregation of schizotypy indicators: A multi-trait family study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 115–121.
  • Grove, William Merrill (1991). When is a diagnosis worth making? A comparison of two statistical prediction strategies. Psychological Reports, 68, 3-17.
  • Cicchetti, D., & Grove, W.M. (Eds.). (1991). Thinking clearly about psychology: Essays in honor of Paul Everett Meehl. Vol. I. Essays on matters of public interest. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Grove, W.M., & Cicchetti, D. (Eds.). (1991). Thinking clearly about psychology: Essays in honor of Paul Everett Meehl. Vol. II. Essays on individual differences. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Grove, W.M., Clementz, B.A., Iacono, W.G., & Katsanis, J. (1992). Smooth pursuit ocular motor dysfunction in schizophrenia: Evidence for a major gene. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 1362–1368.
  • Fellow, American Psychological Society, 1995