Timothy Dunnigan

Educational Background & Specialties


  • adjustment among Hmong refugees
  • cultural semantics
  • Dak'ota lexicography and language maintenence
  • Native North America and South East Asia
Research & Professional Activities


  • Hmong-English Mental Health Dictionary: Contrasting Hmong and English lexical classifications of conditions treated at Mental health clinics, ongoing
  • Dakota syntax and language pedegogy: Development of a syntactic compenent to Dakata language lessons, 2004 - 2005
  • Hmong classifiers: Hmong component of a cross-linguistic comparison of grammatical classifiers, 2004


  • Vice-Chair, Board of Directors, Multicultural Center for Integrated Health: Providing mental health services to culturally diverse clients,
  • Hmong. In Refugees in America in the 1990s. Dunnigan, Timothy, Douglas P. Olney, Miles A. McNall, and Marline Spring), Greenwood Press, 1996.
  • Legal Interpreting on Trial: A Case Study. In Translation and the Law. Dunnigan, Timothy, Bruce T. Downing, John Benjamins, 1995.
  • The Problem of Metaphorical Nonequivalence in Cross-Cultural Survey Research: Comparing the Mental Health Statuses of Hmong Refugee and General Population Adolescents. Dunnigan, Timothy, Miles A. McCall and Jeylan T. Mortimer, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 24, pp. 344-365, 1993.
  • Ojibwe Texts: Language Mixing and Humor in the Mille Lacs and Red Lake Dialects. Dunnigan, Timothy, Rose Barstow and Angeline Northbird, Ojibwe Text Anthology, J.D. Nichols, ed., University of Western Ontario Press., 1988.
  • The Hmong of Laos and the United States.. Dunnigan, Timothy, Dia Cha, Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender, Volume 1, 2004.
  • North American Hmong. Dunnigan, Timothy, Julie Keon-Bomar, Encyclopedia of World Cultures, Supplement, 2002.
  • Overcoming Language Discrimination for the Hmong in Mental Health: The Role of Cultural Semantics and the Use of Interpreters. Dunnigan, Timothy, Michael Goh and Kathryn McGraw-Schuchmann., The Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination, Volume 2: Ethnicity and Multicracial Identity, 2004.