Spencer E Cole

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146F Nicholson Hall

My research centers on the innovative religious cultures of late republican and early imperial Rome. My publications include articles on religion in both the republican and imperial periods, Augustan poetry, and Greek drama. I am also a contributor to the Routledge Dictionary of Ancient Mediterranean Religions. My book Cicero and the Rise of Deification at Rome (Cambridge University Press) examines Cicero's formative experiments with the divinization of humans.

Educational Background & Specialties

Educational Background

  • Ph.D.: Classics, Columbia University, 2006.
  • M.A.: University of Washington, 1998.
  • B.A.: University of Washington, 1996.


  • Republican and early imperial Latin literature
  • Greek and Roman religion
  • Greek and Roman rhetoric
  • Contributor– The Routledge Dictionary of Ancient Mediterranean Religions
  • Annotated Innovation in Euripides’ Ion: Cole, Spencer, Classical Quarterly, 58.1 313-15, 2008.
  • Cicero, Ennius, and the Concept of Apotheosis at Rome: Cole, Spencer, Ennius and the Invention of Roman Epic, 39 531-548, 2006.
  • 'Elite Skepticism in the Apocolocyntosis: Further Qualifications' in K. Volk and G. Williams, eds. Seeing Seneca Whole: Perspectives on Philosophy, Poetry and Politics, Leiden: Brill (2006), 174-182. Reviewed BMCR 2007.08.42
  • 'The Dynamics of Deification in Horace Odes 1-3' in S. Asirvatham, C. Pache and J. Watrous, eds. Between Magic and Religion: Interdisciplinary Studies in Ancient Mediterranean Religion and Society, Baltimore: Rowman and Littlefield (2001), 67-91. Reviewed BMCR 2003.02.14
  • Cicero and the Rise of Deification at Rome. Cole, Spencer, Cambridge , Author, 2013 (Paperback 2019. Download
  • Religion and Metaphor at Rome: Cole, Spencer, N. Roubekas, Equinox, Theorizing 'Religion' in Antiquity, 2019.