Collegiate Affiliation

I specialize in visual perception with a cognitive-neuroscience perspective. I am particularly interested in the role of vision in important real-world activities including reading, object recognition and wayfinding. Additional research interests include binocular vision and visual contrast coding.

A major focus of my research has been the application of  vision research to explain the difficulties encountered by people with impaired vision in everyday activities, especially reading. One practical outcome of this research is the recent development of the MNREAD Acuity Chart, a new eye chart for testing normal and impaired vision.

Educational Background & Specialties
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Educational Background

  • Ph.D.: Psychology, Harvard University, 1976


  • cognitive science
  • human visual perception
  • neuroscience
  • vision and reading
  • vision and spatial navigation
  • vision and object recognition
  • low vision
  • binocular vision and stereopsis
  • contrast coding in vision