# BA in Mathematics

The study of mathematics forms the foundation for numerous scientific disciplines and applications, plus endeavors in domestic and international commerce. Mathematics study also imparts skill in logical thought and discourse.

More than just numbers and formulas, mathematics is the study of structure, symmetry, and patterns, and their many applications to real-world problems. Mathematics has permeated every field of science and engineering, and plays an indispensable role in modern biology and medicine, finance, economics, sociology, and many other disciplines.

Our program offers undergraduate and graduate courses that you may customize based on your interests and career plans. The mathematics major includes broad technical electives, as well as required courses in physics. Taking classes in complementary disciplines such as engineering, chemistry, computer science, statistics, biology, and economics can expand your career options. Mathematics offers intellectual challenges and wide-ranging career opportunities that are consistently rated at the top of lists of all professions.

### The BA in Mathematics

The College of Liberal Arts offers a bachelor of arts (BA) in Mathematics; it’s administered through the Department of Mathematics in the College of Science and Engineering, which also offers a bachelor of science in Mathematics (BS). This may be confusing, so here we explain the similarities and differences between the two options.

- The BA and BS are
**equally challenging**. The major courses are the same for both degrees and students from both take their classes together.**The pre-requisite courses to enter the major are the same.** **Admissions**to the College of Liberal Arts and the College of Science & Engineering**are different**; you might get into one college but not the other.**The structure of the degrees are slightly different.**The BA has more flexibility if you want to pursue multiple interests, allowing space in your degree plan for breadth and depth; the BS degree program offers opportunities to take additional math and technical courses.- The BA degree requires proficiency in a second language.

## The Liberal Arts Advantage

Students who choose the BA degree have the option to add relevant minors to their major and their electives will help them develop skills that employers look for, above and beyond technical skills developed in the major courses. These core career competencies include:

- Analytical & Critical Thinking
- Applied Problem Solving
- Ethical Reasoning & Decision Making
- Innovation & Creativity
- Oral & Written Communication
- Teamwork & Leadership
- Engaging Diversity
- Active Citizenship & Community Engagement
- Digital Literacy
- Career Management

Consider your own interests and career goals and consult with an advisor when deciding whether to apply to the College of Liberal Arts (for the BA) or College of Science & Engineering (for the BS). Both degrees will prepare you well for your future.

## Tracks

###
No Specialization

- One Theoretical Algebra course
- One Applied Algebra course
- Two Analysis courses
- Two additional upper-division MATH courses
- CLA Capstone (MATH 4995 or 4997W)

###
Actuarial Science

- One Theoretical Algebra course
- MATH 4242 Applied Linear Algebra
- MATH 5651 Basic Theory of Probability and Statistics or STAT 5101
- MATH 5652 Stochastic Processes
- MATH 4065 Theory of Interest
- MATH 5067 Actuarial Mathematics I
- MATH 5068 Actuarial Mathematics II
- One CSCI course
- ECON 1101, 1102
- ACCT 2050
- FINA 3001
- STAT 3021, 3032, 5102
- One INS from 4100, 4200
- Recommended: MATH 4067W Actuarial Mathematics in Practice
- CLA Capstone (MATH 4995 or 4997W)

###
Computer Applications

- One Theoretical Algebra course
- MATH 5485 Numerical Methods I (an Applied Algebra course)
- MATH 5486 Numerical Methods II (an Analysis course)
- One additional course from the Analysis list
- MATH 5165 Mathematical Logic I
- One additional computing-related MATH course (4242, 5166, 5248, 5251, 5285H, 5286H, 5385, 5705, 5707, 5711)
- Two 1xxx-level CSCI courses (for example 1103-1913 or 1113-1913 or 1133-1933)
- CSCI 2011/2011H
- Two upper-division CSCI courses (4011, 4041, 4511W, 5421, 5451, 5511, 5512, 5521, 5607, 5608, )
- CLA Capstone (MATH 4995 or 4997W)

###
Mathematics Education

- MATH 4281 or MATH 5248 or MATH 5251 or MATH 5285H (Theoretical Algebra course)
- MATH 4707 or MATH 5705 or MATH 5707 (
*Note: MATH 4707 Introduction to Combinatorics and Graph Theory satisfies the Algebra requirement only for the Math Ed specialization.*) - MATH 5335 Geometry I
- MATH 4653 Elementary Probability (MATH 5651 or STAT 5101 may be substituted, either of these two courses will also fulfill part of the Analysis requirement)
- Two courses from the Analysis list
- CLA Capstone (MATH 4995 or 4997W)

###
Mathematical Biology: Genomics

- MATH 4428 Mathematical Modeling
- One Theoretical Algebra course
- MATH 4242 Applied Linear Algebra
- MATH 5525 Intro to Ordinary Differential Equations or MATH 5535 Dynamical Systems & Chaos
- MATH 5651 Basic Theory of Probability and Statistics or STAT 5101
- One additional upper-division MATH course (for example: MATH 5445 Mathematical Analysis of Biological Networks)
- BIOL 1009/1009H General Biology (regular/Honors)
- GCD 3022 Genetics
- CSCI 5461 or 5481 (note the CSCI prerequisites for these courses)
- One of the following: (note the prerequisites for the EEB and GCD courses)
- EEB 5042 Quantitative Genetics
- GCD 4143 Human Genetics
- GCD 4151 Molecular Biology of Cancer
- MATH 5445 Mathematical Analysis of Biological Networks (recommended)

- CLA Capstone (MATH 4995 or 4997W)

###
Mathematical Biology: Physiology

- MATH 4428 Mathematical Modeling
- One Theoretical Algebra course
- MATH 4242 Applied Linear Algebra
- MATH 5525 Intro to Ordinary Differential Equations or MATH 5535 Dynamical Systems & Chaos
- MATH 5651 Basic Theory of Probability and Statistics or STAT 5101
- MATH 5445 Mathematical Analysis of Biological Networks or MATH 5447 Theoretical Neuroscience
- BIOL 1009/1009H General Biology (regular/Honors)
- PHSL 3061 Principles of Physiology
- PHYS 1201W/1301W/1401V
- PHYS 1202W/1302W/1402V
- CHEM 1061/1071H and 1065/1075H
- CHEM 1062/1072H and 1066/1076H
- One of the following: (note the prerequisites for PHSL and NSC courses)
- PHSL 4700 Cell Physiology
- PHSL 5444 Muscle
- NSC 5202 Theoretical Neuroscience: Systems and Information Processing (note the prerequisites for this course)
- MATH 5445 or MATH 5447 (the one not taken above)

- CLA Capstone (MATH 4995 or 4997W)

## Career Paths

All liberal arts degrees help CLA students develop their Core Career Competencies, and mathematics majors develop specific skills that are applicable to lots of different careers. These skills include strong quantitative reasoning abilities, strong problem-solving, analytical and logical reasoning, and developing an independent, self-motivated work ethic.

Students who take the SuperStrong Interest Inventory receive a three-letter interest code, which identifies their top three areas of interest, work activities, potential skills, and personal values. The interest code "ICR" is often associated with this major, however, the SuperStrong assessment can help you understand how your interests connect to a variety of majors and career options. You can learn more about common employer types and occupations associated with this major. You can also see CLA specific examples of alumni careers below.

### Internship & Job Search Websites

### Student Groups

- Actuary Club at the University of Minnesota
- Financial Math Association
- oSTEM @ Minnesota
- SIAM Student Chapter
- Student Chapter of the Association for Women in Mathematics at the University of Minnesota

### Professional Organizations

### Alumni Career Examples

Below is a small sampling of what alumni with this major have pursued, organized by the most common career fields they go into (although keep in mind that there are alumni in all eight of the career fields). You can also utilize the LinkedIn's Alumni Tool and the Maroon and Gold Network to further explore alumni career pathways and connect directly with professionals.

**Internships**

- Intercontinental Logistics Officer Intern - Divino
- Import/Export Analyst Intern - Citic Pacific Special Steel Holdings
- Intern - Bank of America Merrill Lynch
- Human Capital Analyst Intern - United Health Care
- Procurement Analyst Intern - Coca-Cola Company
- Risk Assessment Research Intern - Minnesota Historical Society
- Intern - Zhejin Trust
- Summer Intern - FXCM
- Actuarial Intern - Austin Mutual Insurance Company
- Investment Banking Department Summer Intern - Bank of China International
- Finance Intern - UBS
- Actuarial Intern - Deloitte
- Actuarial Intern - China Pacific Life Insurance Co., Ltd.
- Advisory Finance Intern - PwC
- Business Analyst Intern - Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
- EVS Intern - KPMG
- Product Management Intern - American Family Insurance
- Actuarial Intern - The Standard
- Actuarial Intern - Allianz Life
- Actuarial Intern - Millman, Inc.
- Actuarial Intern - PwC
- Summer Intern - Aon Hewitt
- Advisory Intern - Gao Feng Advisory Company
- Actuary Intern, Security Health Plan

**Entry-Level**

- Research Assistant - Minnesota Population Center
- Analyst - Goldman Sachs
- Actuarial Intern - Travelers
- Actuarial Analyst - Van Iwaarden Associates
- Financial Analyst - Wells Fargo
- Actuarial Analyst - Arthur J. Gallagher & Co.
- Associate, Actuarial Analyst - Swiss Re
- Actuarial Analyst - Aon Hewitt
- Operations Analyst - Wells Fargo Home Mortgage
- Actuarial Assistant - CNO Financial Group
- Actuarial Associate - PwC
- Actuarial Associate - Aon Hewitt

**Experienced**

- Senior Actuarial Analyst - Van Iwaarden Associates
- Actuarial Risk Analyst - Aon
- Actuarial Analyst II - Blue Cross Blue Shield of Nebraska
- Assistant Vice President - Citi

**Graduate Programs**

- MS, Statistical and Economic Modeling - Duke University
- Information Technology Certificate - University of Minnesota
- MA, Economics - Tufts University
- MA, Statistics - Columbia University
- MS, Actuarial Science - Temple University

**Internships**

- IT Intern - Travelers
- Production Technician - Sensonix, Inc.
- Software Engineering Intern, CyberOptics
- Applications Developer Intern, Rightpoint
- Student Intern, Minnesota Population Center

**Entry-Level**

- TECDP Associate - Cigna
- Associate Technology Consultant - DuCharme, McMillen & Associates

**Experienced**

- Senior Technology Consultant - DuCharme, McMillen & Associates
- Manager, Tax Technology - DuCharme, McMillen & Associates

**Graduate Programs**

- MS, Statistical and Economic Modeling - Duke University
- Information Technology Certificate - University of Minnesota
- MA, Economics - Tufts University
- MA, Statistics - Columbia University
- MS, Actuarial Science - Temple University